Saturday, March 21, 2020
Students Problems in Translating Source Language Texts Essay STUDENTSÃ¢â¬â¢ PROBLEMS AND METHODS IN TRANSLATING SOURCE LANGUAGE TEXTS A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education By Wendy Rahmad Biyandi Student Number: 071214131 ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2012 STUDENTSÃ¢â¬â¢ PROBLEMS AND METHODS IN TRANSLATING SOURCE LANGUAGE TEXTS A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education By Wendy Rahmad Biyandi Student Number: 071214131 ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2012 i A Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis on STUDENTSÃ¢â¬â¢ PROBLEMS AND METHODS IN TRANSLATING SOURCE LANGUAGE TEXTS By Wendy Rahmad Biyandi Student Number: 071214131 Approved by Sponsor Date Made Frida Yulia, S. Pd. , M. Pd. 15 May 2012 ii A Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis on STUDENTSÃ¢â¬â¢ PROBLEMS AND METHODS IN TRANSLATING SOURCE LANGUAGE TEXTS By WENDY RAHMAD BIYANDI Student Number: 071214131 Defended before the Board of Examiners on . and Declared Acceptable Board of Examiners Chairperson Secretary Member Member Member : C. Tutyandari, S. Pd. , M. Pd. : : : ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Yogyakarta, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education Sanata Dharma University Dean, Rohandi, Ph. D. iii STATEMENT OF WORKÃ¢â¬â¢S ORIGINALITY I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper should. Yogyakarta, 06 July 2012 The writer We will write a custom essay sample on Students Problems in Translating Source Language Texts specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Students Problems in Translating Source Language Texts specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Students Problems in Translating Source Language Texts specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Wendy Rahmad Biyandi 071214131 iv LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama Nomor Mahasiswa : Wendy Rahmad Biyandi : 071214131 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: STUDENTSÃ¢â¬â¢ PROBLEMS AND METHODS IN TRANSLATING SOURCE LANGUAGE TEXTS Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan rolayti kepada saya selama saya tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal: 06 July 2012 Yang menyatakan Wendy Rahmad Biyandi v ABSTRACT Biyandi, Wendy Rahmad. (2012). StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Problems and Methods in Translating Source Language Texts. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University. Most courses in ELESP are designed to support studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ acquiring English language, such as structure, pronunciation, reading, writing, listening, speaking, vocabulary, and many more. In the higher levels of study, the students are expected to be able to use their competences of English language in some more advanced purposes, such as how to translate a source language text (SLT) into a target language text (TLT). The lecturers of the Translation Classes in ELESP must have been encouraging the students with some methods, approaches, or techniques of how to ease them in doing the translation tasks. However, there have remained some problems which make the results of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation not quite appropriate. This research is intended to answer two research questions: (1) What specific translation problems occurred in the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translating process? and (2) What methods did the students tend to use during the translating process? To answer the first research question, the researcher applied document analysis. The documents were taken from the results of mid-term test conducted by Translation I class A in the academic year 2011/2012. Meanwhile, to answer the second research question, the researcher still applied the document analysis to identify the methods used by the students in the translation works. From the findings, it could be identified that there were 22 problems found in the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation works which were divided into two classifications. The first classification was grammatical problems involving complicated source language grammar (83,33%). The second classification was lexical problems involving idioms (100%). Afterwards, the researcher revealed the identified translation methods which were categorized into (1) literal translation involving word for word translation (8,33%) and literal translation (100%) and (2) non literal translation involving semantic translation (33%). Based on the research findings, firstly, the researcher encourages the students to enrich their capability in translating the text, especially the text which contains so many difficult lexical words or phrases. This could be done by fostering the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ reading motivation. Dealing with the methods that the students tend to use during the translating process, the researcher really recommends the students to be flexible. The researcher also recommends the ELESP lecturers to give the Translation I class students more practices to translate sentences which contain difficult lexical problems, such as idioms, collocations, proverbs, and many more. Lastly, for future researchers, the researcher encourages other researchers who are interested in studying this topic to deeper analyze other problems or methods that possibly occur in translating. Keywords: problems, methods, translation i ABSTRAK Biyandi, Wendy Rahmad. (2012). StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Problems and Methods in Translating Source Language Texts. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma. Sebagian besar mata kuliah di PBI di rancang untuk membantu para mahasiswa dalam mempelajari bahasa Inggris, seperti structure, pronunciation, reading, writing, listening, speaking, vocabulary, dan masih banyak lagi. Saat menca pai tingkat yang lebih tinggi, para mahasiswa diharapkan sudah mampu menggunakan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris mereka untuk diaplikasikan pada tujuan tertentu, seperti menerjemahkan teks dari sumber bahasa tertentu ke bahasa target. Para dosen pengampu mata kuliah Penerjemahan di PBI tentunya sudah memberikan berbagai materi perkuliahan seperti pendekatan, metode-metode, ataupun tekhnik dalam menerjemah kepada para mahasiswa. Akan tetapi, masih saja ada masalah dalam menerjemah yang mana menyebabkan penerjemahan yang dilakukan para mahasiswa kurang dapat diterima dengan baik. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menjawab dua pertanyaaan penelitian: (1) Masalah-masalah penerjemahan tertentu seperti apa saja yang muncul pada saat proses menerjemahkan yang dilakukan mahasiswa? an (2) Metode-metode apa saja yang cenderung digunakan mahasiswa dalam menerjemahkan. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian yang pertama, peneliti melakukan analisa dokumen. Dokumen yang dianalisa diambil dari hasil mid-term tes yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa di kelas A Translation I tahun akademik 2011/2012. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian yang kedua, peneliti masih menggunakan analisa dokumen untuk menganalisa metode yang dipakai siswa dalam d alam menerjemahkan. Dari hasil penelitian, ditemukan 22 masalah yang terbagi menjadi dua jenis pengelompokan. Pengelompokan pertama adalah masalah tata bahasa yang mencakup tata bahasa sumber yang rumit (83,33%). Pengelompokan kedua adalah masalah leksis yang mencakup idiom (100%). Kemudian, peneliti mengungkapkan metode-metode penerjemahan yang teridentifikasi yang dikategorikan menjadi (1) penerjemahan harafiah yang mencakup penerjemahan kata demi kata (8,33%) dan penerjemahan harafiah (100%) dan (2) penerjemahan tidak harafiah yang mencakup penerjemahan semantis (33%). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, pertama, peneliti menghimbau para mahasiswa untuk memperkaya kemampuan mereka menerjemahkan teks sumber, terutama teks yang berisi banyak kata-kata atau frasa leksis yang rumit dengan meningkatkan minat membaca Dalam hal metode dalam menerjemahkan, peneliti sangat menganjurkan mahasiswa untuk fleksibel dalam menerjemahkan. Peneliti juga menganjurkan dosen Translation I PBI untuk lebih memberikan latihanlatihan soal yang berisi permasalahan leksis, seperti idiom, kolokasi, pepatah, dan lebih banyak lagi. Terakhir, untuk peneliti berikutnya, peneliti mendorong peneliti lain yang tertarik pada penelitian yang berhubungan dengan topik ini untuk menganalisa lebih dalam tentang masalah-masalah dan metode-metode yang mungkin muncul dalam menerjemahkan. Kata kunci: masalah, metode, penerjemahan vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AlhamdulilahirobilÃ¢â¬â¢alamin. Firstly, I would like to express my greatest gratitude to Allah SWT, who made this thesis possible. I owe my deepest gratitude to my sponsor, Made Frida Yulia, S. Pd. , M. Pd. whose feedback, encouragement, and support from the initial to the final level enabled me to finish this thesis. It is such a great honor for me to be guided by a great lecturer who was willing to share her precious time, knowledge, and experiences. I would like to particularly thank the Translation I Class lecturer in the academic year 2011/2012, Fidelis Chosa Kastuhandani, S. Pd. , M. Hum. for his permission to conduct this research in his class. My sincere gratitude also goes to Herdiansari Hayuningrum for all of her supports and suggestions given to me, and Mbak Devy for her help as my proofreader. I would like to give my special thanks to all of the lecturers of English Language Education Study Program who have taught me everything, especially to Drs. Y. B. Gunawan, M. A. for being my academic advisor. I would also like to thank Mbak Dhanniek and Mbak Tari for their help during my study, the library staff for their hospitality and help; and all of the fifth semester students who were taking Translation I Class C in the academic year 2011/2012 for their willingness to be participants in this research by letting me use their translation works as the data. My sincerest gratitude is addressed to my father Wahyu Widayat for his priceless support, to my mother Widi Harni for her endless love and prayers, to my brother Riski for cheering up my days. I owe my deepest gratitude to Edulight personnels: Heri, Bretya, Asep, Nidya, Susan, Asri, and Gloria for the unforgettable moments that we had all along; to Dwi, Hening, Seto, Shanti, Hedwig, Gaby, and my other friends in ELESP 2007 whom I cannot mention one by one, for accompanying me to conquer the hard time together. I would also like to express my special thanks to my girlfriend Riyani who has always been there for me anytime when I need her. iii May Allah bless all of the people who have supported me during the completion of this thesis. Amen. Wendy Rahmad Biyandi ix TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE .. APPROVAL PAGES .. STATEMENT OF WORKÃ¢â¬â¢S ORIGINALITY . PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ABSTRACT . ABSTRAK .. ACNOWLEDGEMENTS . TABLE OF CONTENTS .. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF APPENDICES CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Research Background .. B. Problem Formulation C. Problem Limitation D. Research Objectives .. E. Research Benefits F. Definitions of Terms .. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Theoretical Description . Translation 8 8 1 4 5 5 5 6 i ii iv v vi vii ix x xiv xv x 2. Translation and the Cultural Implication .. 3. TranslationÃ¢â¬â¢s Considerations .. 4. Translation Problems .. a. Grammatical Problems . b. Lexical Problems . ) Collocations . 2) Idioms . 3) Proverbs . c. Stylistic Problems 1) Formality vs. Informality . 2) Style of Fronting .. 3) Passive and Active Styles . . Translation Methods a. Word for Word Translation b. Literal Translation .. c. Semantic Translation . B. Theoretical Framework CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Research Method .. B. Research Setting .. C. Research Participants D. Instruments and Data Gathering Technique . 1. Human as Instrument .. 10 12 13 14 14 15 15 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 28 30 30 30 31 xi 2. Documents E. Data Analysis Technique F. Research Procedure 1. Asking Permissions to the Lecturer . 2. Collecting Data .. 3. Analyzing Data .. 4. Concluding and Reporting Findings CHAPTER IV RESEARCH RESULTS AND FINDINGS A. The Specific Translation Problems that Occured in the StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translating Process .. 1. Idioms . 2. Complicated Source Language Grammar . 3. Collocations . 4. Proverbs . 5. Formality vs. Informality .. 6. Style of Fronting 7. Passive and Active Styles . B. Methods that the Students Tend to Use During the Translating Process 1. Literal Translation . 2. Semantic Translation .. 3. Word for Word Translation . 31 32 35 35 36 36 36 37 39 45 49 51 52 53 54 55 56 59 62 xii CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. Conclusions B. Recommendations .. 1. For English Language Education Study Program (ELESP) Students .. 2. For English Language Education Study Program (ELESP) Lecturers . . For Future Researchers .. 70 71 67 65 67 REFERENCES 72 xiii LIST OF TABLES Page Table 3. 1 Types of Grammatical, Lexical, and Stylistic Problems in the StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translation .. Table 3. 2 The Types of Methods in the StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translation Table 4. 1 The Percentage of the Identified Specific Problems in the StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translation Work .. Table 4. 2 The Percentage of the Identified Translation Methods in the StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translation Work .. 56 38 33 34 xiv LIST OF APPENDICES Page Appendix A Permission Letter Appendix B The Analysis Result of StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translation Problems Appendix C The Analysis Result of StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translation Methods . 73 75 81 Appendix D The Frequency of Identified Problems in StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translation Works . Appendix E The Type of Methods Found in the StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Translation Works . 87 85 xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of six major sections. They are research background, problem formulation, problem limitation, research objectives, research benefits, and definitions of terms. A. Research Background English Language Education Study Program (ELESP) is a study program under Teachers Training and Education Faculty in Sanata Dharma University. ELESP is known as Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (PBI). This study program aims to prepare future English teachers who have four competences; professional, pedagogic, personal, and social (Panduan Akademik Program Studi PBI, 2007). Several courses in ELESP are designed to support studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ acquiring English language, such as structure, pronunciation, reading, writing, listening, speaking, vocabulary, and many more. In the higher levels of study, the students are expected to be able to use their competences of English language in some more advanced purposes, such as how to translate a source language text (SLT) into a target language text (TLT). When the students are in the fifth semester, the lecturers of the ELESP begin to introduce translation course. There are several kinds of problems that the students face in translating either English into Indonesian or Indonesian into English text. The main aim of 1 2 translation is to serve as a cross-cultural bilingual communication vehicle among people (Gerding-Salas, 2000). In order to make such a good Ã¢â¬Ëcommunication vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢ among people, a translator then must try to translate a certain text properly so that the target people will be able to understand the meaning of the source language. Thus, translating means a translator re-tells the source language by using the target language without deforming its original meaning. Ghazala (2008) notes that in translating a text, there must be some difficulties that the translators might face, Ã¢â¬Å"a translation problem is any difficulty we come across at translating, that invites us to stop translating in order to check, recheck, reconsider or rewrite it, and make a sense of itÃ¢â¬ (p. 17). In this case, ELESP students are trained to be able to not only transfer the meaning of the source language into the target language text but also understand the principles, problems, or the process of translation. Meanwhile Newmark (1988) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"in a narrow sense, translation theory is concerned with the translation method appropriately used for a certain type of textÃ¢â¬ (p. 10). The lecturers of the translation class in ELESP must have been encouraging the students with some methods, approaches, or techniques of how to ease them in doing the translation tasks. However, there have remained some problems which make the results of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation are not appropriate. According to Molina and Albir (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"translation method refers to the way of a particular translation process that is carried out in terms of the translatorÃ¢â¬â¢s objective, such as a global option that affects the whole textsÃ¢â¬ (p. 507). Moreover, during the activity of translating, some problems which include grammar, lexical, 3 stylistic, or phonological are also forcing the translators to hardly continue translating. This situation puts a translator into a condition where he has to negotiate form and meaning between the source language text and the reader of target language. When the students in the translation class are working on a translation task, he or she might hardly consider some methods in translating. In fact, recognizing and understanding the methods in translating are actually helpful for them in the process of translation. Some examples of this phenomenon could be established as follows, Joanne gave me two tickets yesterday which is translated into Joanne memberi saya dua tiket kemarin. People who understand English, especially ELESP students know that the result of the English language sentence into Indonesian language is acceptable. However, the sentence still sounds a little bit awkward and unnatural. There is another better alternative sentence that a translator can choose, such as kemarin Joanne memberiku dua tiket. A similar way of how students do their translation task from Indonesian language text into English language text sometimes frequently occurred. For instance, cepat atau lambat cuacanya akan berubah which is translated into fast or slow the weather will change. The result of the translation does sound English and grammatically correct, but it sounds awkward and is very unnatural in English. The sentence Ã¢â¬Å"sooner or later the weather will changeÃ¢â¬ would be much more appropriate to be used. The examples above show that there is a consideration about the result of the translation, whether a translator should be Ã¢â¬ËfaithfulÃ¢â¬â¢ to the form of the sentence 4 or the meaning of the sentence. In the world of translation, there is a tendency of people to use a Ã¢â¬Ëword for wordÃ¢â¬â¢ translation method (Newmark, 1988, p. 6) since maybe the SLT is unbearably too difficult to be translated into TLT. Thus, he keeps to be faithful to the form of the sentence. Nevertheless, there are also many people or translators who try to consider the level of faithfulness based on not only the form but also the meaning. Therefore, it is important for the students in translation class to pay attention to the methods of translation before they s tart translating. Understanding the methods would help translators to doing translation because the methods influence the result of the whole text (Newmark, 1988, p. 45). Nevertheless, not all methods can be considered good to be used in the translation tasks. All these kinds of general facts about translation can be found on every translatorÃ¢â¬â¢s works, including the works done by the translation class students of ELESP. Therefore, based on the phenomena that there are several problems in translating as well as less attention to the methods of translation, a research to find out the the students problems and methods in translating source language texts is conducted. B. Research Problems In the research problems, there are two questions to answer. 1. What specific translation problems occurred in the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translating process? 2. What methods do the students tend to use during the translating process? 5 C. Problem Limitation In this study, the writer analyzes the translation products done by Translation I class students. Since it is Translation I class, the translation is the one from English as the source language into Indonesian as the target language text. The data are taken from their result of progress I translation test. The writer analyzes the problems as well as the methods of how the students work on the translation task. There are a number of problems and methods elaboration of which they are explained in the Chapter II. Any mistake in spelling and punctuation will be disregarded since the writer would only focus on the problems and methods out of the minimum requirements. D. Research Objectives Dealing with the two research questions mentioned previously, this study is conducted to achieve these objectives. 1. To figure out the specific problems occurring in the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translating process. 2. To find out the methods which the students tend to use during the translating process. E. Research Benefits This research is expected to give benefits to both students and lecturers. For the students, the research shows them how well their mastery in translating so that they know which part should be improved. It also makes them know some 6 crucial problems that might occur in translating. It is expected that by learning from their problems, students will be more careful in translating and encouraged to optimize the use of translation methods Also, by knowing which part of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ difficulties in translating, lecturers would find it easier to teach them based on their needs and weaknesses. Hopefully, by exposing the students to some various types of problems and methods in translation to keep in mind, the ELESP students can be more careful in doing their translation tasks. F. Definitions of Terms It is important to define some terms used in this study to avoid misunderstanding and to lead readers to a better understanding on the topic being discussed. The terms are as follows. 1. Translation According to Larson (1984, p. 3), translation is the transfer of meaning in the source language text into the target text; this is done by replacing the form of the first language by the form of the second language. Translation means rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. In this research, translation represents the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ process in how the students do the task of rendering the meaning. In other word, the task of what is called Ã¢â¬Ëtranslation processÃ¢â¬â¢. The students in the Translation I class work on translating Indonesian text as the SLT into English as the SLT. 7 2. Method In this research, Purwati (2010) states that there are many procedures or methods in translation. She adds that a procedure is the act or manner of proceeding in any action or process. In the Mcquarie Dictionary (1982) as quoted by Purwati (2010) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"a method is a way to doing something, especially in accordance with a definite planÃ¢â¬ . In this study, method is the way the Translation I class students do something in their process of translating. The method is dealing with how the students create a certain plan to work on their translation task. 3. Translation I Class The next term is Translation I Class; Translation I Class refers to a class or course offered in the fifth semester by ELESP of Sanata Dharma University. Translation is designed to introduce knowledge of the definition, principles, problems, and process of translation. The students are exposed to the hands-on experiences of translating various types of text types. Some concepts dealing with translation are also introduced, such as cultural transfer, naturalization, coherence, unity, and flow (Panduan Akademik Program Studi PBI, 2011). In this research, Translation I Class is the class where the students do the process of translation under the guidance of the lecturer. Panduan Akademik Program Studi PBI additionally stated that the ELESP students are to identify syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic problems in translating letters, news, editorials, leaflets, abstracts, and journals. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, related literature is discussed as theoretical base on which the study outlined in Chapter I is conducted. There are several important discussions presented in this research. The literature review is divided into two parts; those are theoretical description and theoretical framework. First, the theoretical description contains the relevant theories as references to support this research. Second, the theoretical framework discusses how the selected theories help to answer the research questions. A. Theoretical Description In this section, the researcher presents several theories of translation. Translation theories are important to be discussed since those theories become the major focus of the study. The researcher describes some expertsÃ¢â¬â¢ definitions related to translation, translation and cultural implications, translation onsiderations, translation problems, as well as translation methods. 1. Translation There are many ways people can describe what translation is. According to Larson (1984), Ã¢â¬Å"Translation consists of changing from one state or form to another, to turn into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own or anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s languageÃ¢â¬ (p. 3). Larson (1984) also states that Ã¢â¬Å"translation is the transfer of meaning in the source language text into 8 9 the target text; this is done by replacing the form of the first language by the form of the second languageÃ¢â¬ (p. ). When students of English Language Education Study Program are learning translation, especially in Translation I class, it is not impossible that each of them face some problems in working on the exercise. Hatim and Mason (1990) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"Translators are inevitably acting under the pressure in the negotiation of meaning between the source-language text producer and the reader of the target-language text, both of whom exist within their own, different social frameworksÃ¢â¬ (p. 21). In Translation I class, the students act as if they are the real translators who have to be able to translate English text into Indonesian text appropriately, but problems still occur here and there. Many cases are found that most students do a literal translation, which more likely make them difficult to translate a source-language text naturally. Such Ã¢â¬ËhabitÃ¢â¬â¢ might lead the students to produce a translation product which does not sound English. Students tend to do the translation word by word, so the result remains too Indonesian. It is English but the context of language used in the translation product hardly represents a common characteristic of the social framework. Hatim and Mason (1990) explains that there are always so many improving aids that translators can utilize to make a good translation product, but actually the problems faced by the translators remain the same. Hatim and Mason (1990) describes several types of problems; the first is about the comprehension of source text, which covers parsing of text (grammar and lexis), access to specialized knowledge, and access to intended meaning. The second is about the 0 transfer of meaning, it includes relaying lexical meaning, relaying grammatical meaning, and relaying rhetorical meaning, including implied or inferable meaning, or potential readers. The third is about assessment of target text, it pervades readability, conforming to generic and discoursal TL conventions, and judging adequacy of translation for specified purpose. 2. Translation and the Cul tural Implications It is mentioned above that translators have a high risk to translate a source language text (SLT) into the target language text (TLT) without any concerns of common characteristics of the social framework. James (2002) states that translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions. Therefore, translators are inevitably confronting with how to treat the cultural aspects found in a ST and to find the best technique of conveying the intended meaning in the TLT. James (2002) explains that a gloss translation mostly typifies formal equivalence where form and content are reproduced as faithfully as possible and the TLT reader is able to understand as much as he can of the customs, manner of thought, and means of expression of the SLT context. Persons engaged in the complex task of translating possess some type of underlying or covert theory; as explained by Nida (1991), even though it may be still very embryonic and described only as just being faithful to what the author was trying to say, (p. 19). James (2002) mentions that the cultural implications for translation may take several forms ranging from lexical content and syntax to 11 ideologies and ways of life in a given culture. In this case, translators have to be able to analyze the significances found in the cultural aspects of the SLT and how necessary those significances are to be translated into the TTL. Some of the major problems of translation are over-translation, under-translation, and untranslatability (Abdellah, 2002). This statement implies that if translators fail to transfer the required cultural meanings from the SLT into the TTL, they might lead the translation products into over-translation, under-translation, or even untranslatability. It is true that the richness of vocabulary and the understanding of language structure out of the source language as well as the target language could influence the quality of the translatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ product of translation. However, the depth of the cultural understanding is essential to considering the implications for translation. James (2002), in her study mentions that based on the conclusion of importance to both linguistic and cultural differences between the SLT and the TLT, differences between cultures may cause more severe complications for the translator than do differences in language structure. More theory found in JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ study reveals that no language can exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture; and no culture can exist which does not have at its centre, the structure of natural language. These theories clearly indicate that mere ability or competence to create grammatically correct sentences as an impact to the TLT is not sufficient for the translators to be Ã¢â¬Å"as faithful as possibleÃ¢â¬ to the SLT. The manner in which cultural aspects may be perceived and make translating decisions accordingly (James, 2002). 12 3. TranslationÃ¢â¬â¢s Considerations Gerding-Salas (2000) states that every translation activity has one or more specific purposes and whichever they may be; the main aim of translation is to serve as a cross-cultural bilingual communication vehicle among peoples. In translating, there are several procedures, processes, or techniques of which a translator must consider, Ã¢â¬Å"Through experience I have learned that the consequences of wrong translations can be catastrophicÃ¢â¬ (Gerding-Salas, 2000). This statement shows how the task of translating could be getting much more difficult. Thus, translators cannot just simply translate a SLT into TLT without considering some kind of approaches. The translatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ habitual use of the language is unavoidably determining how perfect the result of the translation product (Gerding-Salas, 2000), Ã¢â¬Å"I shall assume that you, the reader, are learning to translate into your language of habitual use, since that is the only way you can translate naturally, accurately and with maximum effectivenessÃ¢â¬ . In fact, however, most translators do translate out of their own language. Gerding-Salas (2000) mentions that there is always a way of approaching an SLT, whether the translator chooses the author-centered traditional model, the text-centered structuralistic model or the cognitive reader-centered model. In order to decide which approach a translator must go on, a translator has to understand Ã¢â¬Å"the natureÃ¢â¬ of the confronted text. Several kinds of problems are provided in the study conducted by Gerding-Salas (2000). One of the problems is dealing with semantic and cultural nature (Tricas, 1995). According to GerdingSalas, this problem occurs when the translators happen to reading and 3 comprehending the SLT. In this case, the richness of vocabulary that the translators have plays quite a big role. Additionally, the cultural understanding supports the translators to comprehend the deep meanings of the SLT. Furthermore, Gerding-Salas (2000) adds that there might be a possibility of Ã¢â¬Å"Linguistic UntranslatabilityÃ¢â¬ , of which it obstacles the translators from finding the appropriate lexical terms, such as true and false friends, calque, and other forms of interference; institutional and standardized terms, neologisms, aphorisms, and many more. Another one Gerding-Salas (2000) states is about the Ã¢â¬Å"Cultural UntranslatabilityÃ¢â¬ such as idioms, sayings, proverbs, jokes, and so on. Thus, it would lead the translator into the ability to determine which one is to translate and which one is supposed to be not. As a result, cautious attitude towards these problematical issues in the translating process is taken into account. Otherwise, the result of the translation would be vulnerable to some misuse or interference of both languages. 4. Translation Problems Ghazala (1995) states that Ã¢â¬Å"A translation problem is any difficulty we come across at translating, that invites us to stop translating in order to check, recheck, reconsider or rewrite it, or use a dictionary, or a reference of some kind to help us overcome it and make sense of itÃ¢â¬ (p. 17). In this section, the researcher discusses several problems that might occur during the translation process. There are three major focus of translation problems to be discussed. The first one is about 14 grammatical problems, the second is about lexical problems, and the third is about stylistic problems. . Grammatical Problems English and Indonesian grammars are different according to each of its structure. Ghazala (1995) provides one example of sentence dealing with this problem, of the three books you have recommended to me, I have chosen only one. If the sentence is translated into Indonesian, it will become dari ketiga buku yang telah kamu rekomendasikan kepada saya, saya hanya memilih satu. According to Ghazala (1995), this kind of sentence structure, which is starting with Ã¢â¬ËofÃ¢â¬â¢ and postponing the main clause Ã¢â¬Ëi have chosenÃ¢â¬â¢ to a back position, is considered complex. Ghazala (1995) notes that it can make the students of translation find it difficult to understand easily and directly. He adds that the point becomes clearer at comparing it to the following normal and direct structure, just like I have chosen only one of the three books you have recommended to me, or in Indonesian it becomes Saya telah memilih satu dari ketiga buku yang kamu anjurkan kepada saya. b. Lexical Problems Ghazala (1995) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"Lexical problems occur when a word, a phrase or an expression is not understood clearly and directly, misunderstood, not known at all to students, or not found in standard dictionaries (p. 9). According to Ghazala (1995), there are specific problems that the students might worry. The problems are dealing with collocations, idioms, proverbs, and cultural terms. 15 1) Collocations According to Ghazala (1995), collocation is the combination of two or more words that always occur consistently in different texts and contexts in language (p. 106). Ghazala (1995) adds that collocations occur in several conditions, such as certain nouns occur with certain adjectives (e. g. Ã¢â¬Ëblind confidence), a verb with a noun (e. g. Ã¢â¬Ëdraw a sword), a noun with a noun (e. g. brain drain), and many more. Indonesian and English have their own different collocations. Meanwhile, Ghazala (1995) emphasizes that collocations play a vital role in a language (p. 106). Collocations are sometimes inevitabe and it creates a beautiful part in a language. Therefore, Ghazala (1995) notes that students need to attend to the collocations fully in Indonesian to lend the Indonesian version the same beauty of the English text (p. 106). It means that it is important for the students to undermine the concern with the translation of the English collocations in Indonesian. ) Idioms Ghazala (1995) explains that idiom is any Ã¢â¬Å"phrases which have fixed forms and special meaning of their wordsÃ¢â¬ (p. 19). English idioms, such as found in this sentence, ladies and gentlemen, lend me your ears, cannot be translated directly into Indonesian. Ghazala (1995) states that it has methaporical meanings, and it is saying something to mean something else (p. 129). However, translating English idioms directly into Indonesian is still acceptable only if the meaning can be clearly understood. For example, the 16 company is on the black list. In Indonesian translation, the sentence would be perusahaan itu sedang dalam daftar hitam. In Indonesia, daftar hitam has the same meaning as black list, of which this word tries to describe a list of people who are out of favor. However, the case is different from this sentence example, the exam was a piece of cake for me. If the sentence is translated literally into Indonesian, the sentence would be ujiannya seperti sepotong kue bagi saya. The phrase Ã¢â¬Ëa piece of cakeÃ¢â¬â¢ in English means undertaking something that is so much easy to do. Therefore, it has no relation at all with Indonesian words sepotong kue. Another problematic problem dealing with idioms is phrasal verb. Ghazala (1995) explains that phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and an adverb or preposition, or both an adverb and a preposition, such as up, down, on off, in, out, over, and many more (p. 133). If the verb and the adverb or preposition are combined together, it might result a specific idiomatic meaning. The meaning of the combination between the verb and adverb or preposition usually cannot be understood individually. The students of the translation class might face this kind of problem. Students sometimes become misled and confused when they are trying to distinguish which English phrasal verb is idiomatic or normal. There are two examples of sentences which indicate whether it is prepositional verb or phrasal verb that has specific meaning. Put the book on the table, this sentence has a clear meaning and it is understandable, there is the verb Ã¢â¬ËputÃ¢â¬â¢ and the preposition Ã¢â¬ËonÃ¢â¬â¢. The other example is put your coat on, this sentence is different from the 17 previous one. There is something missing after the preposition Ã¢â¬ËonÃ¢â¬â¢, there is no adverb such as found on the former sentence. The second sentence indicates an idiomatic meaning which has no relation to the first sentence, eventhough both sentences are using the verb and the preposition Ã¢â¬Ëput onÃ¢â¬â¢. 3) Proverbs Ghazala (1995) states that proverbs are special, fixed, unchanged phrases which have special, fixed, and unchanged meanings, just like idioms (p. 138). According to Ghazala (1995), a proverb cannot be understood as a collection of the individual meanings of its words. Ghazala (1995) adds that proverbs are metaphor and stand for something else. Proverbs in English cannot be translated or understood directly because it has a certain relation with culture. Students might become more confused when they are trying to find an Indonesian phrase which has a closest proverb relation with the English phrase. c. Stylistic Problems The next set of problems of translation is dealing with stylistic problems. According to Ghazala (1995), style is viewed as a part of meaning and affects it in different ways and to different degrees (p. 222). The statement means that if there is a change in the style, the meaning will be changed either. Ghazala (1995) mentions that meaning was claimed to stand on its own, it is unaffected by such certain style (p. 222). Nevertheless, style has been given a special attention and it is indeed part of meaning. 18 If translators attend to style and consider the importance of using style in their work, they will fully attend to the meaning. Meanwhile, if translators ignore the presence of style, they will ignore some parts of the meaning. There are two sentences to show that the significance of style is worth discussing. Her mother died yesterday and her mother was killed yesterday. Those two sentences have the meaning that her mother is dead. In Indonesian, it can be translated as ibunya meninggal kemarin. However, translators cannot just translate the above sentences into one and the same Indonesian version of translation because the cause of the death is crucial to both the dead person and to the family. Her mother died yesterday is normal and neutral death, meanwhile her mother was killed yesterday is abnormal, unnatural, and disgraceful crime. From the examples above, it can be inferred that style has its own role in any aspect of language and meaning. Ghazala (1995) defines style as Ã¢â¬Å"different choices made by writers from the language stock in regard to layout (of shape), grammar, vocabulary (or words) and phonology (or sounds), namely, from all aspects, levels and components of language (p. 223). 1) Formality vs. Informality Ghazala (1995) suggests a scale of five Ã¢â¬ËstylesÃ¢â¬â¢ of English language, which is general but proved to be widely acceptable by most people. There are frozen fornal, formal, informal, colloquial, and vulgar (slang). Examples: a. Frozen formal : Ã¢â¬ËBe seatedÃ¢â¬â¢ b. Formal : Ã¢â¬ËHave a seatÃ¢â¬â¢ Duduk Silakan duduk 19 c. Informal d. Colloquial : Ã¢â¬ËSit down, pleaseÃ¢â¬â¢ : Ã¢â¬ËFeel at home Mari, silakan duduk Anggap lah rumah sendiri Ayo cepet duduk! e. Vulgar (slang) : Ã¢â¬ËSit bloody down! Ã¢â¬â¢ However, it is difficult to distinguish formal and informal styles of language. Ghazala (1995) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"despite the difficulty and personal nature of the distinction between the five styles of English language, we can understand and apply them in general terms (p. 226). The examples provided above has their own different effect and meaning. The example a is so official and seems to be impolite, it can be said by a harch person or a man of a high position, such as a boss, a manager, a king, and many more. Whereas example b is official but polite, it can be used in the similas context as the example number 1, but appropriately to friends or personal acquaitances. The example example c is much more polite, and considered rather unofficial. Meanwhile example number 4 is quite friendly, intimate, and kind, of which it reflects colloquial tone. The last example is so strong and rude, usually it is said as a humorous context to close friends. ) Style of Fronting Another important stylistic device is the style of fronting. According to Ghazala (1995), it is a widely used style at both the sentence and text levels which has the purpose to move a word, a phrase or a clause from its original place in the middle or at the end of the sentence to the beginning (or the front position) of the sentence (p. 231). Examples: a. In my room he slept Di kamarku dia tidur 20 b. If you apologize, I will forgive you Bila kamu meminta maaf, aku akan memaafkan kamu Ghazala (1995) notes that making such frontings are not made by a chance, it is made for good reasons (p. 31). The fronting is made by putting the subordinate clause before the main clause. This changing position of the clause means nothing but giving important function of emphasis than the other part of the sentence. Therefore, the fronting style means that it plays a vital role in understanding meaning. In my room he slept instead of he slept in my room, the first sentence tries to emphasize that Ã¢â¬Ëin my roomÃ¢â¬â¢ is to be more noticed rather than Ã¢â¬Ëhe sleptÃ¢â¬â¢. The next is, If you apologize, I will forgive you means that the person concerned demands apology in order to give forgiveness to the other person. ) Passive and Active Styles Ghazala (1995) explains that passive and active are two contrastive forms and styles, they have different funct ions (p. 246). The researcher does not say that Indonesian language tends to be active or passive, or so does English. Ghazala (1995) points out that both styles have to be reflected in Indonesian for their important functions to the message. Example: a. The American solidiers killed five Afghans children yesterday. b. Five Afghans children were killed yesterday. Those two sentences above have the same meaning. However, if those sentences are carefully considered, they look different. The first sentence is active 21 and it clearly shows that the killers or the doers of the action is revealed. Meanwhile the second sentence is passive and it hides the killers or the doers. From the examples above, it can be shown how the distinction between the active and the passive style influences the meaning of the sentence. The active sentence one focuses on the murderer or the killer, this might be due to political reasons or its relation with public media. Meanwhile, the second passive sentence does not focus on the doer of the action, it is more on the results of what the doer has done. Hiding the identity of the doer can probably mean that the doer is not quite important and is just possible to ignore. 5. Translation Methods Newmark (1988) suggests that the central problems of translating has always been whether to translate literally or freely (p. 45). Students in translation class apply some various ways on how they do the translating process so that the result would be considered as a good translation. Some of the students are trying to translate the text very carefully that they are afraid of distracting the meaning. On the other hand, some other students strive hard translating the text faithfully because they think that every single word or sentence in the text is important to translate. Molina and Albir (2002) states that there are two categories which can be used to analyze translations (p. 498). The categories are textual and contextual. According to Molina and Albir (2002), textual categories describe mechanisms of coherence, cohesion, and thematic progression. Meanwhile contextual categories 22 introduce all extra-textual elements related to the context of the SLT and the translation production (p. 498). Based on the statement described, how well the students have solved their problems in translation is actually influenced much by the two categories. Students cannot translate the SLT into TLT just the way they like it since it would affect the result of translation product, whether the translation is acceptable and natural enough for the directed readers. Therefore, translating needs some specific strategies and methods. The strategies are how the students carefully see the text through textual and contextual categories, and how the students make use of the methods based on the strategies afterwards. In this part of the chapter, the researcher try to describe specific ways to translate SLT into TLT which are considered as methods of translation. Literal and non-literal translation are the two focuses to be highlighted. The Literal translation is divided into two topics to discuss, there are word for word translation and literal translation. Meanwhile, the non-literal translation is described into one topic, that is semantic translation. a. Word for Word Translation Newmark (1988) explains that this method of translation is often demonstrated as interlinear translation with the target language is immediately below the source language (p. 45). What is meant by interlinear is that supposed there two sentences written down lined up, the above sentence is the source language sentence, and below is the target language sentence. Usually a translator who performs this kind of translation method would likely put the meaning of every single word of the source language sentence down below. 23 Example: SLT TLT : Look, little guy, you all should not be doing that. : Lihat, kecil anak, kamu semua harus tidak melakukan itu. According to Ghazala (1995), Ã¢â¬Å"this method regards translation to be a translation of individual wordsÃ¢â¬ (p. 5). The arrangement of the TLT is perfectly the same as the one SLT. The translators translate the sentence ord by word, general meanings are prioritized, meanwhile the context is not taken into account. Ghazala (1995) adds that the whole concentration of this translaton method is on the source language, whereas the target language should follow, imitate, and mirror it blindly, perfectly and precisely, neither more nor less (p. 5). b. Literal Translation Newmark (1988) explains that a literal translation is when the SLT grammatical constructions are converted to the nearest TLT e quivalents, but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context (p. 6). This translation method is almost similar to the previous one, word for word translation. In the process of translating, the translators are trying to identify the grammatical construction of the SLT which is similar to the TLT. At the first time, translating the SLT by using a word for word translation method is initial action to do, but then the translators adjust the construction of the SLT grammar with the TLT grammar. This type of translation method is actually described as translating between using word for word translation method and free method. However, the result of the translation still remains out of context of the meaning. According to Ghazala 24 (1995), this method of translation means to translate each source language word or phrase into an identical word or phrase in the target language, with the same number, grammatical class, and type of language (p. 6). Example : a. SLT TLT b. SLT TLT : Look, little guy, you all should not be doing that. : Lihat, anak kecil, kamu seharusnya tidak berbuat seperti itu. : His position is in the right place. : Posisinya berada di tempat yang benar. Ghazala (1995) adds that the process of translating using this method is like a noun is translated into a noun, two nouns into two nouns, one adjective into one adjective, two into two, and so on and so forth (p. 6). c. Semantic Translation Semantic translation has a quite close relation with faithful translation. According to Newmark (1988), faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the target language grammatical structures (p. 46). What makes semantic translation different with faithful translation, based on Newmark (1988), is that it differs from faithful translation only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value, that is, the beautiful and natural sounds of the source language text (p. 46). From the differences between the faithful translation and semantic translation above, semantic translation is considered more flexible to the TLT. Semantic translation should take an account of aesthetic or so-called beautiful features of the SLT to be compromised with the possible meaning in TLT. 5 Example : SLT TLT : He is a book-worm. : Dia adalah seseorang yang suka sekali membaca. The word Ã¢â¬Ëbook-wormÃ¢â¬â¢ in the above example could be actually translated into the word Ã¢â¬Ëkutu bukuÃ¢â¬â¢ in Indonesia, so the sentence in TLT would become Ã¢â¬Ëdia seorang kutu bukuÃ¢â¬â¢. However, the the above TLT sample sentence is translated accordance to the cultural context as well as accepted functional limitation of the TLT. B. Theoretical Framework This chapter synthesizes all relevant theories which are significant to discuss for the sake of this research. Translation means retelling what a translator has obtained from the source language to the target language. The researcher selected the theories of translation from Larson (1984) because it is quite relevant to the study. When translating something, a student or a translator is trying to transfer the meaning from the first language into the second language or vice versa. The translator should pay attention to the source language textÃ¢â¬â¢s social framework which might be different from the target language text. If the translator just attempts to do a literal translation without considering the main ideas or cultural characteristic of the source language text, it is possible if the translation product will sound awkward. Translating a source language text into target language text cannot be separated from cultural implications. The researcher agrees with the statement 26 made by James (2002) mentioning that translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions. The cultural implications have something to do with the translation considerations. In translating, there are several procedures, rocesses, or techniques of which a translator must consider. Therefore, in order to be able to work on the translation process, the translators should consider the cultural aspects too. James (2002) states that no language can exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture; and no culture can exist which does not have at its center, the structur e of natural language. This is related to the Ã¢â¬Ëcultural untranslatabilityÃ¢â¬â¢, the explanation made by Gerding-Salas (2000), saying that this phenomenon obstacles the translators from finding the appropriate idioms, sayings, proverbs, jokes, and so on. The basic theories about cultural implications and translation considerations lead the researcher into an overview of how the students in the translation class manage their translating process. In other words, the researcher is able to know whether the students are taking all these kinds of pre-translating activity into account or not. Relating the theories about cultural implications and translation considerations to the problems confronted by the students in translating English as the SLT into Indonesian as the TLT would help the researcher to analyze it more thoroughly. After the researcher has identified the characteristics of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation works based on the cultural implications and translation considerations, he then moved to what problems that obstacle the students from translating appropriately. There are many kinds of translation problems which 27 probably occur when the students are translating the text. The researcher specified the problems into three major aspects, those are grammatical problems, lexical problems, and stylistic problems. Actually there are many other aspects of translation problems that might be found in the world of translation. The researcher specifically selected the three out of the many other problems described by Ghazala (1995) because those are significant aspects which really influence the quality of the translation product. When the translation problems have been identified and analized, it would help the researcher to move on to the next part to discuss, the methods of the translation. Basically, there are various theories stating about some methods that generally translators use. Molina and Albir (2002) states that there are two categories which can be used to analyze translations (p. 498). The categories are textual and contextual, textual covers mechanisms of coherence, cohesion, and thematic progression. Meanwhile, contextual categories introduce all extra-textual elements related to the context of the SLT and the translation production. The researcher chose the translation methods from Newmark (1988) and Ghazala (1995) because those are quite relevant to the characteristics of categories stated by Molina and Albir (2002). CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research methodology employed in the research. It consists of six major sections. They are covering the research method, research setting, research participants, instruments and data gathering technique, data analysis technique, and research procedure. A. Research Method There were two research questions to be investigated and in this research; and qualitative research was used as the methodology. Qualitative research method was selected because it offers the most appropriate ways to gain the research findings. Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) as cited in Ary, Jacobs, and Razavieh (2010) states that Ã¢â¬Å"research methods should follow research questions in a way that offers the best chance to obtain useful (and the most thorough) answerÃ¢â¬ (p. 24). This research was conducted to obtain useful information about the problems encountered by the fifth semester students of English Language Education Study Program (ELESP) as well as the methods in translating source language texts, in this case translating English as the SLT into Indonesian as the TLT. According to Sprinthall and Schmutte (1991), qualitative method is Ã¢â¬Å"approaches used to systematically gather data, but the data are purely descriptive and therefore not numericalÃ¢â¬ (p. 100). The researcher was going to present the 28 29 data in the form of words instead of numbers and measures. Therefore, qualitative research is considered the best and the most relevant method to apply. To answer the first research question, which investigates the problems occured in the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translating process, document or content analysis was applied in this research. The researcher employed document analysis because he took the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation works as the data. Ary et. al. (2010) states that Ã¢â¬Å"document analysis aimed to identify specified characteristics of written or visual materialsÃ¢â¬ (p. 457). The researcher analyzed the documents based on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation works which were submitted upon their mid-term test in Translation I class. After the researcher rely on the results of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation products, the problems that the students encountered would be possibly able to be identified and analyzed. When the researcher has analyzed the problems occurring through the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation test papers, the researcher moved to answer the second research question, the question of what methods that the students tend to use during the translating process. Beside still analyzing what characteristics appeared on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ translation papers, the researcher used the analysis of the translation problems which were previously found to support answering the second research question. In addition, related references were also used to support the process of analyzing the data. 0 B. Research Setting The research was conducted in the academic year of 2011 in ELESP of Sanata Dharma University. The location of the data gathering was in the class of Translation I. The research took the data after the students of Translation I class committed their mid-term test. C. Research Participants The participants of this research were the students from Translation I class C in ELESP of Sana ta Dharma University. Actually, there were two classes had employed Translation I as the obligatory course. The total amount of the students are 24, and the researcher selected one class out of the two. The researcher only took 12 translation works as the papers to be analyzed. The students who were having the Translation I class were those who had fulfilled the prerequisite course. The students were eligible to take this course after passing Structure 4 (Panduan Akademik Program Studi PBI, 2011). The class is in the academic year of 2011. As they had taken the prerequisite course, they were expected to have sufficient knowledge in applying their competence for translating. D. Instruments and Data Gathering Technique To obtain in-depth analysis and interpretation about thi
Thursday, March 5, 2020
How to Register for the PSAT 3 Simple Steps SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Every autumn, sophomores and juniors have the opportunity to take the PSAT. But how exactly does the PSAT registration process work? Does everyone have the same PSAT sign up date? What does it cost to take the PSAT? Here, we'll teach you everything you need to know about PSAT registration. We'll start with a brief overview of how registration works and then go over the three key steps you need to take in order to register for the PSAT. We'll also touch on how to register if youÃ¢â¬â¢re homeschooled or living outside the US before finishing with our toptips for ensuring a smoothPSAT registration process. PSAT Registration: Overview Unlike the SAT, for which you register online through the College Board, you will register for the PSAT through your own high school. Exactly how the PSAT sign up process works will depend on yourschool. Basically, though,here's how it works: schools inform their students when the PSAT registration deadline is, and then give instructions on how to register and pay for the test. The PSAT is offered three times a year in the autumn on a primary date, Saturday date, and alternate date. Your school will select the date on which it will administer the PSAT. Most schools choose the primary date, but some might insteadadminister the PSAT on one of the two alternate dates should the primary date not workwell with the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s schedule. Here is the 2019 PSAT testing schedule, confirmed by the College Board. For information on future PSAT test dates, refer to our guide. Primary Date Saturday Date Alternate Date Wednesday, October 16, 2019 Saturday, October 19, 2019 Wednesday, October 30, 2019 Many schools will require you to register for the PSAT around September. Unfortunately, not all schools administer the PSAT.If your high school isn't going to offerthe PSAT, you may take the test atanother nearby school that is offeringit. Next, we'll walk through the PSAT registration process and look athow to search for high schools offering the PSAT in case your school doesn't plan toadminister it. How to Register for the PSAT: 3-Step Guide Here, we go over the three steps required to register for the PSAT at your (or a nearby) school. Step 1: Determine Whether Your School Will Offer the PSAT First, you must determine whether your high school will actually administer the PSAT. The easiest way to check this is to use the College Board'sschool search tool,whichlooks like this: With this tool, all you have to do is type in the name of your school and its city, state (if applicable), zip code, and country. Once you click "Search," you'll getan entry with the name and address of your school as well as its assessment and test date. On the drop-downmenu, click "PSAT/NMSQT Fall 2019." (If fall 2019 dates aren't available yet, click "Fall 2018" to see whether your school offered the PSAT last year.) HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of a school in Houstonthat offered the 2016 PSAT on that year's primary date: If you know for sure your school will not be offering the PSAT or if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a homeschooled student, you can instead search for your city, state, and zip code to see which schools around you will be offering the PSAT.This type of search can help narrow down your options, ultimately allowing youto select the school that's most convenient for you. Alternatively, if you don't want to use this search tool, you can ask your counselor whether your school will be offering the PSAT or whether they know of any nearby schools that plan to offer it. Step 2: Find Out Your PSAT Registration Deadline and Test Date Most high schools opt forthe primary test date, which is always a weekday in early or mid-October.However,some schools might choose the Saturday PSAT date or the alternate test date instead to accommodate special schedules or religious observances. To find out when your school will be administering the PSAT, consult your counselor or look at the 2019 PSATadministration date for your school using theschool search tool. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of two schools in the same city with different administration dates. One school administered the 2016 PSAT on the primary test date, whereas the other administered the test on the Saturday date: Your school should inform you prior to the PSAT test dates when the examwill take place. If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t heard anything by early or mid-September, talk to yourcounselor. Step 3: Sign Up and Pay for the PSAT Your next step is to register for the PSAT. Simple, right? Here's the kicker, though: PSAT sign up methods vary by school.So while some schools might require you to registerand pay for the test in person, others might require you to go online and register through a website. (You'llnever register for the PSAT through the College Board.) For example, in 2016,this high schoolrequired students to register for the PSAT online and pay for it later in person, whilethis school requires students to register and pay for the PSAT all in person. Whatever the case, your school should offer clear instructions on how to completeyourPSAT sign up.Schools typically hand out or email PSAT registration information to students inthe early fall. If you're planning to take the PSAT at a different school, you'll need to call thatschool or contact one of itscounselors to inquire about the PSAT registration process and see whether the process differs for students who do not attend that school. When registering for the PSAT, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll typically provide basic identifying information, including your full name, home address, phone number, email address, grade level, and student ID number (if applicable). The PSAT costs $16 per student,butsome schools might cover all or part of this fee. Likewise, some schools might charge more than $16 in order to compensate for the use of proctors and test administrators. Either way, your school should tell you how much you'll need to pay for the PSAT and how to submit your payment. Most schools accept cash or checks, but what is considered an acceptable form of payment will vary depending on the school. Checks will most likely be addressedto your school (never to the College Board). Finally,if you're alow-income junior, you might qualify for a PSAT fee waiver. To confirmyour eligibility, talk withyour counselor. Only schools- not students!- maycontact the College Board to request fee waivers. If you have any questions or concerns about PSAT registration or paying for the PSAT, it's best to consult your counselor directly. And there you have it: everything you need to know and do in order to register for the PSAT! Want to improve your PSAT score by 150 points? Check out our best-in-class online PSAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your PSAT score by 150 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also feature thousands of practice questions and two official PSAT practice tests. Check out our 5-day free trial: How to Register for the PSAT If YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Homeschooled If youÃ¢â¬â¢re homeschooled, you can still register for the PSAT- you just need to find a school that administers it.Here are the steps to follow: Step 1: Get in Touch With a Local High School Use theCollege BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s high school search tooltolook for schools offering the PSAT or to confirm that the high school you want to test at will be administeringthe PSAT. The College Board recommends reaching out to schoolsfour months beforethe testtoensure you'll have ample time to work out registration logistics and solidify your test-taking plans. Step 2: Request a Copy of the Official Student Guide From the School This free guide will tell you everything you need to know about the PSAT and even comeswith a full-length practice test. You can alsodownload the PSAT guide from the College Board website. Step 3: Determine Whether You Qualify for a Fee Waiver Generally, those who qualify for PSAT fee waivers are low-income th graders. I suggest reviewing the eligibility requirements and then consulting a counselor at your selected school to determine whether you're eligible. Note that homeschooled students may not request fee waivers directly from the College Board. How to Register for the PSAT If YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Living Outside the US You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be a current resident of the US or even a US citizen to take the PSAT. Unfortunately, non-US citizens and non-permanent residents are not eligible for National Merit scholarships, so there's not much incentive for international students to take the exam outside the US. On the other hand, if you're a US citizen (in the th grade or equivalent) who is currently living abroad, you are eligible for National Merit consideration. Here's how you can register for the PSAT abroad: Step 1: Contact a Local School That Offers the PSAT If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not sure which schools are offering the PSAT, use the College BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s school search tool to look for schools. Make sure you start this process early- you should ideally reach out to schools in your area at least four months before the primary PSAT test date. Step 2: Contact an English-Speaking Educator This educator should guide you through the PSATregistration process and help you pay for the exam at your selected school. Step 3: Request a Copy of the Official Student Guide From the School Your school should give you a copy of this guide once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve registered for the PSAT. This free test guide contains a full-length practice PSAT in addition to tons of information on what the PSAT is and what kinds of skills it tests. Alternatively, you can download it from the College Board website. How to Request PSAT Accommodations for a Disability Students who have documented disabilities may request special accommodations for the PSAT. Examples of accommodations include braille booklets, large-type test booklets, additional time, and extended breaks. To request an accommodation, ask your school counselor to submit an official request to the College Board Services for Students with Disabilities on your behalf. The process usually takes about seven weeks,so be sure to start early. If you're given any accommodations for your disability withouthaving received prior approval from the College Board, your PSAT scores will be canceled. So donÃ¢â¬â¢t dawdle- talk to your counselor as early as possible to secure theaccommodations you need for test day! 5 Tips for Ensuring a Smooth PSAT Registration Process Before you register for the PSAT, follow our five tips below to ensure asmooth and error-free registration process. #1: Start the Process Early Unless your counselor has confirmed your school's PSAT intentions, you can't just assume your school will be offering the PSAT. This is why I suggest starting the PSAT process early, ideally at the end of your sophomore year. During this time, ask your counselor whether your school will be administering the PSAT and when. If you know that your school wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be offering the PSAT (or if you are homeschooled), start looking for schools in your area that will be offering it, and get in touch with them as soon as possible. Remember, it's necessary to give yourself plenty of time to contact schools, especially if you'll be asking about fee waivers or requesting special accommodations for a disability. #2: Keep Your October Schedule Open Usually, all PSAT dates are scheduled for October, so you'll want to keep your October schedule fairly empty in order to accommodate the PSAT- particularly if your school hasn't yet announced the exact date on which it will administer the test. To avoid conflict, don't schedule dentist or orthodontist appointments on Wednesday mornings, and don't plan any weekend getaways in case your school chooses the Saturday test date. #3: Ask About Fee Waivers Many students fail to realize they qualify for a PSAT fee waiver, which is why we suggest talking to your counselor early in the PSAT registration process about discounts for low-income th graders. Note that PSAT fee waivers apply to all sorts of students, including homeschooled students, US citizens testing outside the US, and non-US citizens testing in the US. There is a caveat, though: fee waivers only cover the actual cost of the exam ($16) and not any additional fees that might be required by the school. So even with a fee waiver, you might still have to pay a nominal fee in order to take the PSAT. As always, check with your school for details. #4: Decide Whether YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Take the PSAT as a Sophomore Most students take the PSAT as juniors, but some choose totake the PSAT as sophomores toget afeel for the format of the test and what youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be expected to know. The downside?Sophomores are not eligible for National Merit scholarships, which target high-scoring juniors only, so there is no monetary benefit to taking the PSAT as a sophomore. Despite this con, taking the PSAT early can help familiarize you with ;the structure and content of the exam, ultimately increasing your chance of qualifying for National Merit as a junior. So if you truly want to give yourself your best shot at qualifying for National Merit in the future, go ahead and register for the PSAT as a sophomore! #5: Consult Your Counselor for Questions Last but not least, always consult your school counselor if you have any questions about the PSAT, such as when the test is, how to submit your payment, and how to request fee waivers and special accommodations. Ultimately, when it comes to your school, your counselor will be the most reliable PSAT resource available! Recap: How PSAT Registration Works All students register for the PSAT through their high schools or through a local school should their own school not administer the exam. Each school conducts its own PSAT registration process and will explain to students when the test is and how students can sign up and pay for it. Fee waivers are usually available to low-income th graders. If you are homeschooled or do not currently reside in the US, you can still take the PSAT. To register, contact a local high school thatÃ¢â¬â¢s administering the PSAT and ask whether you can take it there. If you need special accommodations for a disability, you can request these ahead of time through your counselor. Finally, don't forget these five essential tips guaranteed to help your ;PSAT registration proceed as smoothly as possible: Start early and confirm that your school actually offers the PSAT Keep your fall schedule, especially October, relatively empty to account for all PSAT test dates Ask your counselor about fee waivers and see whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re eligible for one Decide whether youÃ¢â¬â¢d be interested in taking the PSAT as a sophomore Direct any PSAT-related questions to your counselor WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Need a rundown of the PSAT before you register for it? Check out our in-depth PSAT guide to learn what the test is, how it's scored, and what kinds of skills you'll need to master to achieve a great PSAT score on test day. Want to learn about PSAT scoring? Our complete guide explains everything you need to know about PSAT score distribution, percentiles, and cutoff scores for National Merit consideration. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Analysis of Nonobjective Art - Essay Example I. Introduction It is possible to use literal, design, and expressive qualities to guide oneÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of works such as Wassily KandinskyÃ¢â¬â¢s painting Several Circles. Afterwards, a reflection on the analysis of nonobjective works will be provided, describing how this process differs from analyzing figurative or representational artwork. II. Literal Qualities Kandinsky used the circle because he thought it represented various concepts, including peace, wholeness, and perfection. He epitomized the form of the circle in this sense, his work being like a form of visual poetry. Ã¢â¬Å"The use of the circle occursÃ¢â¬ ¦in [several] variationsÃ¢â¬ ¦in Kandinsky's workÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ 1 In effect, the use of circles is effective, especially because of the pleasing aesthetic placement of circles of various colors. For example, primary colors red and yellow are used with the secondary color orange in the same general perimeter. In addition, the primary color blue is used effective ly because it is close to the secondary colors green and purple. The literal qualities of the work include strong usages of primary and secondary colors to convey various effects. III. Design Qualities The circle as design was considered to be an epic and most complete shape out of all of the shapes available one could work with, in turn.
Monday, February 3, 2020
American Indian History - Essay Example One of the common complaints in all the colonies was their policies on land ownership and governance. The policies and land rates imposed by the colonies were diminishing to the American Indian community who were the original owners. American Indians only had their land to show for their wealth, and that is what colonies were after. In another similarity, all the three colonies wanted to change the cultural and religious preferences of the Indians which the American Indians were against (Calloway, 2012). European and American policies on land ownership denied the Native Americans the right to own land in United States (Calloway, 2012). This made the American and European policies dictate the use of the lands. The Native Americans were denied the right of exploiting land with their cultural and religious activities. Additionally, Native Americans were against the development of land in their community since the lands were the source of their food. The developments of these lands would reduce the number of buffaloes available for hunting. Native Americans used the land mostly for farming. With the introduction of American and European policies, they were forced to pay taxes for their land and what the produced from the fields (Calloway, 2012). This was one of the main sources of conflict. The policies of removal, detribalization and Americanization were not received well by the Native American population. The Americans felt threatened by the compact religious and cultural background of the American Indians. For this reason, they set to stop the practicing both their religious and cultural practices. However, this move was not successful as Native Americans put up a strong opposition on the issue. The Native American population formulated ways in which they practiced their religious and cultural practices without the recognition of the government. Since the twentieth century, Native Americans decided to take control of their lands and lives. Firstly, many
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Operation Management in Hard Rock Cafe 39 years has passed, which creates a fascinating history for one of 100 greatest brand in the world Hard Rock Cafe. Since its establishment in 1971, Hard Rock Cafe has expanded in over 51 countries with 133 Hard Rock Cafes and 15 Hotels / Casinos. The great success relies on many many factors but the core one we can not deny is its changing strategy. Hard Rock Cafe took a shift of serving, from serving food with entertainment to serving food with experience. Based on its direction, its operation strategy is defined to providing experience. Regarding to 10 operation management strategy decisions like Design of Goods and Services, Managing Quality, Process strategy, Location Strategies, Human Resources, Supply Chain Management, Inventory Management, Scheduling and Maintenance, in the long road of development, Hard Rock Cafe has obtained respected achievements in all fields. The world recoginses its reputation and most of us heartly admize it. I myself can not ignore the stories of Hard Rock Cafe eventhough it has not opened in HaNoi where I am living. The story of its changing strategy from times, the story: of its living museum, of its greatest brands, of its employees.step by step take me to the places of Hard Rock Cafe. Sometimes the place is too far and sometimes the place is too near me. It is that those places and stories there help me get different views of Hard Rock Cafe. Based on my knowledge, understanding and research that I am having now, I take some good points and some not good points to give my own views of Hard Rock Cafe. There will be opposite points that is viewed in the concept of analyzing one operation management decision not only in theory but also in reality. The following operation management decisions take my interests and my thoughts. The design of Goods and Services. The outstanding point of designing goods and services in Hard Rock Cafe is DIFFERENTATION. According to Anthony Henry (Understanding Strategic Management 2008), A differentiation strategy is based on an organization producing products or services which are perceived by customers as unique or different, Hard Rock Cafe has built Living museums of Rock experienced by its customers who are in love of Rock. One cafe with its differentiation mainly is that Rocks collection including customes, instruments, piece of music, CDs, souvernirs of the greatest artists like Eric Clapton, Bruce Springsteen The E Street Band, Pearl Jam, Neil Young, John Lennon, Jimi HendrixÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.That living museums are always updated and becoming more and more fascinating to customers with its memorabilia (more than 70, 000 pieces) from the hottest musical artists of the last 50 years. Besides its differentiation, it is recognized that Hard Rock Cafe is a typical symbol of Product concept method a new tool of marketing. Hard Rock Cafe is a combination of experiences, styles, entertainment, awareness of sharing and memories. All products mentioned above are defined in specific, which creates unforgettable experience for its customers. Hard Rock Cafes customers, in fact it is so hard to call them customers as they are members in Hard Rock family, create the style for Hard Rock. Once they come to Hard Rock, a truly deep impression would leave on them. Love all Serve all A guilding service philosophy creates a special place where you or anyone would be respected, regardless of age, sex or class. The place where all express their love for music one international language. The language which gives us more understanding and narrows the gap among strangers. Not only love for music but also love for humans, love for serving humans. In service industry, Hard Rock Cafe created the high connection point between its employees and its customers. Lay out strategy Before discussing Lay out strategy of Hard Rock Cafe, we should look at some pictures of Hard Rock Shop in Ho Chi Minh City. About 48% of a typical cafes sales are from merchandise quoted in Page 83 Principles of Operations Management 2008 by Jay Heizer and Barry Render, this number has shown the success of Hard Rock shops. It has changed its strategy from times, which adapts to the movements of the global. The world has witnessed great achievement of Wal Mart, McDonalds, HSBCÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.in retail field. Here it gained 48% of revenue through merchandise, which reveals the growth of retail in Hard Rock. What creates the success? One part of the answer you will find in Layout Strategy of Hard Rock Cafe. Each Hard Rock Cafe has its own Rock shop designed in Retail layout an approach that addresses flow, allocates space and responds to customer behavior quoted in Page 83 Principles of Operations Management 2008 by Jay Heizer and Barry Render. Looking at some pictures above, you can see that one small space display numerous of items like hats, T-shirts, shoes, gifts, picturesthat attract customers. Customers not only are fascinated by items in the shop but also are impressed by the light, the color Black and Red. The combination between Black and Red or the symbol of luxury and attraction calls for purchasing action of customers. Quality Management Hard Rock Cafe establishes its quality standards and takes controls to meet these standards. We will look at some points of quality management in Hard Rock Cafe. Responding to customers needs, taste and expectations, Hard Rock Cafe menus are continuously upgraded and service has been changed. To assess the quality of food and service, it regularly conducts surveys. In the survey, scoring method is used to classify the quality. If the evaluating score of food and service is not up to 7, it will fails. In my opinion, quality management following the method shows strictness, clearness and fair. Hard Rock Cafe also takes advantages of technology to ensure the quality of products and services. Chris Tomasso Vice President of Hard Rock updates monthly Microsoft Project. In a real case, to ensure the performance of the rock concert on time, Chris Tomasso gave customers anticipated surprise. The helicopter was used to take the band in, which overcome an unexpected traffic jam. It was the back-up plan that Microsoft Project had put Chris Tomassos ideas into reality. Moreover, techniques and software support Hard Rock s managers to maintain efficient schedule, to estimate budget performance, to estimate time service, to daily forecast sales, to allocate workforce and to give bonusÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.All the things have been done in professional way to meet the standard of the quality management. Regarding to quality management, whenever and wherever, Hard Rock Cafe opens a new cafe, all of us take opportunity to enjoy live musical performances. In opening celebrations in Las Vegas and in Ho Chi Minh City, the shows of Chris Cornell and DMC respectively created a high energy atmosphere and overspread the excitement not only for rock lovers but also for the youth, for the people working in entertainment industry. Through it, we deeply understand how great and strong Hard Rock is. Human Resources In a company, especially in a big corporate like Hard Rock Cafe, there is a lot of tasks for Human Resources Department. Besides the job of recruitment, maintaining, training, creating career development and personal growth, the challenging task Human Resources takes is to providing a nice working environment for employees. According to Hard Rock careers, This place is revolutionaryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Why? Because you can be who you are because who you are defines you, the employees are highly respected. Beyond on my understanding, Hard Rock Cafe is creating a working environment in which each of us takes opportunity to prove ourselves and to promote our career path. It is so wise to do that, to attract job-seekers and to create a competitive advantage for Hard Rock Cafe. In October 2010, according to BBC News dated on 13 October 2010 50 jobs at risk as Cardiff Hard Rock Cafe closes. If I were one employee of Hard Rock Cafe Cardiff, clearly, I would be in an unexpected situation as it has closed suddenly as staff prepared to celebrate its seventh birthday. One question here is that whether Hard Rock Cafes employees in Cardiff location are trully informed timely or not? Some employees may find another jobs, some employees may transfer to other Hard Rock cafe in London, Dublin, Edinburgh, Manchester, some employees may be unemployeed. I myself wonder the real case would get any support from Human Resources of Hard Rock Cafe. Furthermore, in Human Resource strategy of Hard Rock, outstanding pay and benefits are a start quoted in Principles of Operations Management 2008 of Jay Heizer and Barry Render Page 445, is an attracting invitation to employees. Honestly, you and I try our best to work for high income, and it is the same for the others or for the employees of Hard Rock. However, in one article posted on BBC News Hard Rock wages below minimum by Martin Shankleman Business correspondent dated on 18 July, 2008, we should seriously consider Human Resources Strategy and its implementation. In this article, the unnamed waiter of Hard Rock said Its an abuse of customers they are being misled in that they believe they are giving a tip when they are subsiding the actual wage. One question raises in my mind, in fact, there is a big gap between outstanding pay and the wage? In the article mentioned above, Its almost insulting, no wonder people leave said the waiter. In my understanding, people leave it means the employees of Hard Rock had given up their jobs. The reason for them to leave is unreasonable pay? I wonder where the point of outstanding pay is. If I read one article in one book, If I saw only things written on Hard Rock website, I would take only one side of the coin or I would see one thing in one direction without arguments, without feedback, without consideration. In general, regarding to 4 operation management decisions (Product and Services Design, Lay out Strategy, Quality Management and Human Resources) I am taking in consideration, the different views are discussed and analyzed in some aspects. Some give us a perfect model of Hard Rock Cafe in operation management. That we highly respect and admire the achievement, the improvement and the innovation of the world leading Corporate. In the other side, we still see some not good points of Hard Rock. In fact, those points may be in argument, may be unresolved, which leads us researching and discovering in reality through our own experience. Only taking a real experience gives us the whole picture with light and shade, with color of black and white, with ideas and the real life. HARD ROCK CAFE HANOI 16 Dec 2009 was one day marking the step of Hard Rock Cafe in VietNam, particularly in Ho Chi Minh City. Hard Rock Cafe Ho Chi Minh is run by Viet Thai International (VTI) the owner of Highland Cafe. Based on its statement The Best of Both Worlds, VTI develops Hard Rock brand following VietNamese tradition. Based on the information I have got throung internet (www.toursvietnam.net), articles, Hard Rock Cafe is not populated. There are so many people asking for raising Hard Rock Cafe Ho Chi Minhs quality standard. Customers there concern too much its price. The problems may face Hard Rock Cafe Ho Chi Minh in developing its business. Those are some views of Hard Rock Cafe Ho Chi Minh. And what about the future of Hard Rock Cafe coming to HaNoi? The youth and rock lovers in HaNoi keep their ears to the ground as it is coming in HaNoi in 2011? What are waiting for Hard Rock Cafe HaNoi? What are the opportunities and challenges for it? OPPORTUNITIES are regarded as an attractive call for Hard Rock Cafe expanding in HaNoi. Hard Rock Cafe will take opportunity to meet the demand of the young population in HaNoi. In 2010, according to General Statistic Office of VietNam, the population in HaNoi is 6.5 million and the number will increase to 7.7 million in 2015. Moreover, most of the population is in the age of working and average personal income is estimated up to USD 4,300 / year. All the numbers creates the great demand for entertainment in HaNoi today and tomorrow. Another point we shoud not miss is that from times, HaNoi youth changes their lifestyle and consumer behavior. The night of 12th November witnessed the youth HaNoi burn themselves with rock. At the night, Tiger Translate Metropolis 2010 gave an impressive show to fan rock in HaNoi. It was a sleepless night of HaNoi youth. We can imagine how expectable and excited the youth welcome Hard Rock Cafe in HaNoi. Due to young population of VietNam and particularly in HaNoi, Hard Rock Cafe may take the advantage of labor cost. The average personal income in HaNoi is around USD 2,000 2,500 / year, which is a big gap comparing to personal income in London or other cities. The income shows how cheap the labor is in HaNoi. Simply, Hard Rock Cafe can balance the cost the benefit. Locally, in comparison with labor in Ho Chi Minh, labor cost in HaNoi is lower than in Ho Chi Minh. Regarding labor cost, HaNoi offers Hard Rock Cafe a very favorable condition. According to Smart Travel Aisa A travel magazine, HaNoi is voted one of 10 attractive tourist destinations in Asia. In 2010, HaNoi has welcomed 1.4 million tourists and the number will go up more, especially in the hope of the worlds economy recovery. During 39 years, Hard Rock Cafes winning strategy is to expand to destination cities. Hard Rock Cafe would not miss the chance of doing business in HaNoi one destination cities in Aisa. In fact, HaNoi residents expect more new kinds of entertainment to attract domestic tourists from other provinces in the North of VietNam. Hard Rock Cafe will gain much benefit with new one in HaNoi from its foreign and domestic toursists. In 2013, according to the report of PriceWaterhouseCoopers about the Prospect for Entertainment and Communications Industry, VietNam will achieve USD 2.3 billion of market value. The report estimate the growth of Entertainment and Communication Industry: 16.7% the highest level. The growth create chances for Hard Rock Cafe and service industry in VietNam. Based on its software and computered programs, it is not difficult for Hard Rock Cafe to estimate potential earnings.Both entertainment industry in VietNam and service of Hard Rock Cafe take benefits of each other and support themselves for development and growth. VietNam has strengths of exporting cafe, textile and agriculture foods. All the things create a strong supply chain for Hard Rock Cafe to choose. One of supply chain strategies Hard Rock Cafe may define is negotiating with many suppliers quoted in Page 457 of Principles of Operations Management by Jay Heizer and Barry Render. Opening a new one in HaNoi, Hard Rock Cafe has in hand numerous of ingredient suppliers. It is so clear that Hard Rock Cafe takes a lot of advantages from them. Cheap and diversified ingredient is one advantage. Another is the long-term commitment of those suppliers because of fierce competition among them. One another is updating menus that satisfy customerstastes and local culture. Opportunities and challenges play as two sides of the coin. One side we should look at to take chances just in time for creating advantage of doing business. In business, we try to search for opportunities of increasing profit, opportunities of expanding market share, opportuinities of remaining our power, our positionComplying with them, challenges continuously occur and force us to be awared of and to overcome. What CHALLENGES are for Hard Rock Cafe with a new one in HaNoi? There is a clear difference between culture of the North and the South, between personality of the Northerners and the Southerners, between life style in HaNoi and lifestyle in Ho Chi Minh. People in HaNoi is more conservative than those in Ho Chi Minh. For a new one, it takes a little longer time to accept, experience and like it. It can be said that conservativeness typifies personality of the Northerners. Because of conservativeness, the life style of HaNoi is not so exciting as it in Ho Chi Minh. Most of people enjoy their lives with family or in a small cafes without much noises. They lead a life in a less quiet and less exciting way than those in the South. From times, they have changed but the tradition have much influence on their changes. The people in the North prefer saving money to spending it. Whenever earning money, their habit of putting money in savings becomes too popular. Unlike the people in the South, overspending is usually avoided. Due to low personally income, when taking any service, they put too much concern on the price. The price may limit their spending on entertainment. This challenge Hard Rock Cafe should take in consideration. The price of real estate in HaNoi is evaluated too high eventhough comparing to Beijing, Shanghai, Tokyo, LondonLocation plays as vital factor of determining the success of one business, especially the business of Hard Rock Cafe in which location is on the top of concern, research and investment. It is estimated that about 50% operating expenses belongs to location investment. The price of location in destination cities like HaNoi causes headache for investors. This challenge is facing Hard Rock Cafe for a long period as real estate market in HaNoi will be hotter and hotter when the economy recovers, when the finance activities flow strongly and smoothly. From 2010, VietNam Food Administration focuses on the Safety goods. VietNam Food Administration gives Regulations for evaluating the quality of food. Firstly, the main product of Hard Rock Cafe is food and the food quality needs to meet international standards and vietnamese standards. The problem may arise if those standards are defined in different ways and evaluated based on different criteria. Secondly, for suppliers of Hard Rock Cafe in Viet Nam and in the world, what adjustment can be made not to violate the Regulations of VietNam Food Administration. Some suppliers may meet the requirements and adapt to the changes. Some may not meet the requirements and change their own kind of business or stop doing business. There will be a shortage of suppliers, which results in price increase. This challenge sometimes cause problems in quality management. Doing business means searching and capturing opportunities timely. Besides it, facing challenges and overcoming them plays as motivating factor for growth and success. It is so important for us to take business opportunities in developing markets. HaNoi attracts investment due to its development, its undiscovered potential, especially in service and entertainment industry. If I were one of marketing managers taking the task of opening a new Hard Rock Cafe HaNoi, I would recommend one idea as follows. Based on the theory of Differing Marketing Tasks. Even if globally sold product varities are similar, the marketing task can vary geographically quoted in Page 285 Competitive Strategy 1998 by Michael E.Porter, I would carry out one promotional campaign called Love Rock Shop Rock. Why do not I build a connection music network of High schools, Universities and Rock lover clubs in HaNoi? A greeting card valued one souvernir or one small gift of Rock Shop should be presented to the youth in HaNoi before the coming of Hard Rock Cafe. By this way, I would send one message to the youth, encourage them to change their consumer behaviors and excite themselves with Rock, shopping and gift. HaNoi is looking forward to welcoming a high energy of Hard Rock Cafe for tourists, the youth, rock lovers and for the people who have not know Hard Rock yet.